A large fraction of ocean variability on interannual and longer timescales is energized by random atmospheric weather, also referred to as climate "noise". Although the noise is random in time, spatially the atmospheric noise exhibits recurrent patterns, some of which are more efficient in triggering positive feedbacks between the ocean-atmosphere system or more generally amplifying the response of the ocean system. Noise patterns such as these, can trigger resonance in the climate system.
The sustainability of human civilization and its evolving lifestyle depends fundamentally on a sustainable food and energy supply. This can largely be linked to the availability of reactive nitrogen (Nr), phosphorus (P) and trace-element nutrient availability for natural and managed ecosystems. Nr, P and Fe are known to stimulate productivity while other elements, like Cu and Mn, can be toxic for ecosystems. Nr is also a critical link for the carbon cycle, and directly/indirectly impacts climate and human/ecosystem health.