Plastic marine debris or the plastisphere impacts marine organisms through ingestion, entanglement, and as a source of toxic chemicals. The plastisphere could also have a major impact on biogeochemical cycles in the oceans. Plastics are transported via major ocean currents to central gyres, where they reside for decadal time scales. The amount of plastic waste is large, exceeding 2 kg/ km2 in central gyres. Even the most recent ocean surveys cannot account for the amount of debris estimated to enter the ocean, with inputs and outputs differing by orders of magnitude.
Deep subsurface methane hydrate-bearing sediments contain microbial communities that are distinct from shallow marine sediments and hydrate-free environments. DNA evidence suggests that novel bacterial phyla (e.g. Atribacteria) are highly enriched in methane hydrate-bearing sediments. Recent genome assemblies by the Glass group at Georgia Tech are providing insights into the metabolic potential of samples drilled from gas hydrate stability zone 70 mbsf below Hydrate Ridge (IODP Leg 204).